Our greenhouse gas emissions in 2015 totalled 24.1 million tonnes. Scope 1 emissions were 19.3 million tonnes, Scope 2 emissions 0.1 million tonnes, and Scope 3 emissions 4.7 million tonnes.
Direct greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 1
Our direct greenhouse emissions were 19.3 (2014: 20.5) million CO2-equivalent tonnes. The share of carbon dioxide from our direct greenhouse gas emissions was over 99%.
The share of direct greenhouse gas emissions from our total greenhouse gas emissions was 80.1%.
Direct greenhouse gas emissions in 2013-2015 (GRI G4-EN15)
Direct CO2 emissions by country in 2013-2015 (GRI G4-EN15)
Of the direct carbon dioxide emissions, 89% (2014: 82%) originated from the Russian operations and 7% (2014: 11%) from Finland. Carbon dioxide emissions increased in Russia with the commissioning of the new capacity and decreased in Finland due to the reduction in condensing power production.
Fortum’s direct biogenic carbon dioxide emissions were 1.3 (2014: 1.3) million tonnes.
The calculation of greenhouse gas emissions covers carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, fluorinated hydrocarbons and SF6. Carbon dioxide emissions as well as methane and nitrous oxide emissions have been calculated on the basis of plant-specific fuel data. The amounts of HFC compounds and SF6 are reported on the basis of the amounts of gas added to the equipment. Specific gas emission factors are based on IPCC publications.
Indirect greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 2
Greenhouse gas emissions from the production of electricity purchased for our own use were 85,400 (2014:136,000) tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Carbon dioxide emissions accounted for over 99% of this.
The share of Scope 2 greenhouse gas emissions of our total greenhouse gas emissions was 0.4%.
Indirect greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 2) in 2013-2015 (GRI G4-EN16)
Scope 2 emissions have been estimated on the basis of country-specific breakdowns of electricity production.
Other indirect greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 3
The majority of our Scope 3 emissions are caused by the production and transportation of fuels, purchases of goods and services, and investments. Other activities (e.g. employee travel and waste management) account for less than 1%.
Our Scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions in 2015 were an estimated 4.7 (2014: 5.0) million tonnes. The share of Scope 3 emissions was 19.5% of our total greenhouse gas emissions. We estimate that all of our Scope 3 greenhouse gases come from fossil energy sources.
Indirect greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 3) in 2013-2015 (GRI G4-EN17)
We report Scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the requirements of the Corporate Value Chain (Scope 3) Accounting and Reporting standard. The volumes describing the scope of the various activities have been obtained from our monitoring and reporting system. In calculating emissions from the categories "Purchased goods and services" and "Capital goods" we have included only the purchasing categories defined by our Corporate Procurement. In 2015, about 37% (2014: 30%) of our total purchasing volume was undefined and was excluded from the calculation because of lacking initial data.
The specific emission factors used in calculating the greenhouse gas emissions are based on different literature sources. Categorisation of our purchasing will be further developed e.g. to reduce the share of undefined purchases.
Specific carbon dioxide emissions
Our specific carbon dioxide emissions (Scope 1) from total energy production were 181 (2014: 189) g/kWh. The five-year average, including 2015, was 191 (2014: 198) g/kWh. The five-year average of specific carbon dioxide emissions from total energy production started decreasing last year and is now clearly below the target level of 200 g/kWh. The main reason is the decrease in condensing power production in Finland.
Specific carbon dioxide emissions (Scope 1) from total energy production in 2013-2015 (GRI G4-EN18)
Our specific carbon dioxide emissions (Scope 1) from power production in the EU were 21 (2014: 39) g/kWh and the five-year average, including 2015, was 50 (2014: 60) g/kWh. The specific carbon dioxide emissions from our power production are low compared to other European power producers. Our specific emissions in 2014 were about one-eighth of the 313 g/kWh average specific emissions of major European utilities.
Including our Russian power production, our specific emissions in 2015 were 166 (2014:177) g/kWh, which was about 60% of the average level of European utilities in 2014. European reference data for 2015 is not yet available.
Specific carbon dioxide emissions of major European utilities, g/kWh electricity in 2014
The boundary for electricity production’s specific carbon dioxide emissions differs from other environmental reporting. Fortum’s production shares in associated companies are also included. This production is based on hydro and nuclear power and doesn’t cause direct carbon dioxide emissions.
In the calculation of electricity production’s specific emissions, CHP plant emissions have been allocated for electricity and heat using the efficiency method presented in the Greenhouse Gas Protocol guidelines, with heat production efficiency of 90% and electricity production efficiency of 40%.