Nuclear Waste Solidification, Storage and Repositories

Nuclear waste management strategies - solutions for the whole waste lifecycle

Hazardous waste and detoxification
Waste Minimization

We minimize hazardous waste through process system solutions and waste treatment

Recycling and waste services

We provide services for the planning of packaging and disposal

Waste management
Final disposal LILW-waste

We provide the safety cases for the final disposal LILW-waste

Low and intermediate level waste barrels at Loviisa NPP

Fortum's expert knowledge in Waste Management

We at Fortum provide solutions for the whole waste lifecycle of an NPP that we also apply ourselves. In our Loviisa NPP, the plants liquid waste is solidified into cement and packed into concrete barrels. The solidification is designed to process low- and intermediate-level liquid waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of the two-unit Loviisa plant. This waste primarily consists of ion exchange resins used in the purification of process water as well as sludge from the bottom of the evaporator concentrate tanks. This waste is then taken to the LILW-waste repository below the plant site alongside all of the other LILW waste created during the operation and, in the future, decommissioning of the plant. The spent nuclear fuel is also stored on the site at our wet pool interim storages.

See more details below and contact our experts for further discussion on how we could best assist you handle the waste at your site.

LOCKIT® Solidification

What we do at our own solidification plant in Loviisa

  • The solidification plant is an independent unit and designed to handle all of the liquid waste during NPP operation, decommissioning and interim storage of spent fuel
  • The matrix is based on cement and blast furnace slags
  • Processes are operated from a control room
  • Main waste streams are ion exchange resins and sludge
  • Waste and binders are dosed and mixed in a final disposal package

What makes the LOCKIT® cement matrix special

  • The cement matrix developed by Fortum is more than twice as efficient as the traditional matrix
    • Waste content of the solidified product is 40%-50%
    • The cost is practically the same as in the case of traditional cementation
  • The recipe development started in 1980 and the work on perfecting the recipe continues
    • Targeting over 55% waste content without diluting the matrix quality
  • The tests of exposing the matrix to underground water have shown that the matrix has not weakened after four years
  • Suitable for all types of LILW
Antti Ketolainen, Nuclear Services

Antti Ketolainen

Senior Manager
Decommissioning and Waste
Tel: +358 40 751 8956
Antti [dot] V [dot] Ketolainen [at] fortum [dot] com

Spent fuel interim storage concept – Wet storage

Our offering for interim storage

  • Feasibility study
  • Conceptual design
  • Safety engineering with ADLAS™
  • Preliminary safety analysis (radiation safety, PRA, thermohydraulical analysis with Apros etc.)
  • Construction licensing documentation including PSAR
  • Procurement support

Key features & benefits

  • Adapts well to complete nuclear fuel cycle including final disposal.
  • Redundant ultimate heat sink applied. Lessons learned from Fukushima taken into account.
  • Air plane crash protection applied.
  • No penetrations from fuel pools below the water surface. Reduced risk of leaks.
  • Compatibility with final disposal: easy transfer of fuel out from spent fuel storage
  • Cheaper than dry storages
  • Easily adaptable to different needs
Antti Ketolainen, Nuclear Services

Antti Ketolainen

Senior Manager
Decommissioning and Waste
Tel: +358 40 751 8956
Antti [dot] V [dot] Ketolainen [at] fortum [dot] com

Fortum’s LILW disposal concept

Basics of the concept

  • LILW disposal facilities are located underground on the NPP site. 
  • Separate spaces for lower and higher level waste
  • Engineered & natural barriers
  • NPP organisation operates the LILW disposal facilities
  • We offer the:
    • Design of a low and intermediate level waste final repository
    • Licensing
    • Cost analysis
    • Long-term evaluation of the repository and it's environment
    • Safety analysis

Key Benefits

  • Minimized effort to get public acceptance through integration with the NPP site
  • Minimized O&M-costs through the NPP site integration and lack of O&M after site closure
  • Minimized occupational exposure through the separated spaces for lower and higher level waste
Antti Ketolainen, Nuclear Services

Antti Ketolainen

Senior Manager
Decommissioning and Waste
Tel: +358 40 751 8956
Antti [dot] V [dot] Ketolainen [at] fortum [dot] com