Nuclear Waste Solidification, Storage and Repositories

Nuclear waste management strategies - solutions for the whole waste lifecycle

Hazardous waste and detoxification
Waste Minimisation

We minimise radioactive waste through process system solutions and waste treatment.

Recycling and waste services
Waste Management Planning

We provide services for waste management strategies and waste route engineering.

Waste management
Final Disposal Expert Services

We provide safety cases and other expert services for the final disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW).

VLJ luola waste repostpries decommissioning at Loviisa

Fortum's expert knowledge in Waste Management

We at Fortum provide solutions for the whole waste lifecycle of an NPP, based on what we also apply ourselves. In our Loviisa NPP, the plants liquid waste is solidified into cement and packed into concrete barrels. The solidification is designed to process low- and intermediate-level liquid waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of the two-unit Loviisa plant. This waste primarily consists of ion exchange resins used in the purification of process water as well as sludge from the bottom of the evaporator concentrate tanks. This waste is then taken to the LILW-waste repository below the plant site alongside all of the other LILW waste created during the operation and, in the future, decommissioning of the plant. The spent nuclear fuel is also stored on the site at our wet pool interim storages.

See more details below on Fortum’s waste related concepts, as well as the services we offer related to solidification, interim storage and different types of repositories (underground and near surface). Contact our experts for further discussion on how we could best assist you handling the waste at your site.

Low and intermediate level waste barrels at Loviisa NPP

LOCKIT® Solidification

What we do at our own solidification plant in Loviisa

  • The solidification plant is an independent unit and designed to handle all of the liquid waste generated during NPP operation and decommissioning. It also handles the liquid waste originating from interim storage of spent fuel.
  • The solidification matrix is based on cement and blast furnace slags
  • Processes are operated from a control room
  • Main waste streams are ion exchange resins and sludge
  • Waste and binders are dosed and mixed directly in the final disposal package

What makes the LOCKIT® cement matrix special

  • The cement matrix developed by Fortum is more than twice as efficient as the traditional matrix
    • Waste content of the solidified product is 40%-50%
    • The cost is practically the same as in traditional cementation
  • The recipe development started in 1980s and it is continuously further developed to optimise the performance of the matrix for new waste fractions
    • Over 50% waste content without diluting the matrix quality
  • The tests of exposing the matrix to underground water have shown that the matrix has not weakened since 2012
  • The solidification matrix is suitable for all types of LILW
Antti Ketolainen, Nuclear Services

Antti Ketolainen

Senior Manager
Decommissioning and Waste
Tel: +358 40 751 8956
Antti [dot] V [dot] Ketolainen [at] fortum [dot] com

Spent fuel interim storage concept – Wet storage

Our offering for interim storage

  • Feasibility study
  • Conceptual design
  • Safety engineering with ADLAS™
  • Preliminary safety analysis (radiation safety, PRA, thermohydraulical analysis with Apros etc.)
  • Construction licensing documentation including PSAR
  • Procurement support

Key features & benefits

  • Adapts well to complete nuclear fuel cycle including final disposal.
  • Redundant ultimate heat sink applied. Lessons learned from Fukushima taken into account.
  • Air plane crash protection applied.
  • No penetrations from fuel pools below the water surface. Reduced risk of leaks.
  • Compatibility with final disposal: easy transfer of fuel out from spent fuel storage
  • More cost efficient than dry storages
  • Easily adaptable to different needs
Antti Ketolainen, Nuclear Services

Antti Ketolainen

Senior Manager
Decommissioning and Waste
Tel: +358 40 751 8956
Antti [dot] V [dot] Ketolainen [at] fortum [dot] com

Fortum’s LILW disposal concept and disposal related engineering services

Basics of the Fortum’s concept

  • LILW disposal facilities are located underground on the NPP site. 
  • Separate spaces for low and intermediate level waste
  • Facility includes both engineered and natural barriers
  • NPP organisation operates the LILW disposal facilities

Key Benefits

  • Minimised effort to get public acceptance through integration with the NPP site
  • Minimised O&M-costs through the NPP site integration and lack of O&M after site closure
  • Minimised occupational exposure through the separated spaces for low and intermediate level waste

Our main offering related to different types of repositories (underground and near surface)

  • Design of a low and intermediate level waste final repository
  • Licencing
  • Cost analysis
  • Safety case: documentation demonstrating the long-term safety of the disposal
  • Operational safety analysis
  • Radiation safety analysis
  • Commissioning services
  • Services related to disposal of spent fuel together with Posiva Solutions
Antti Ketolainen, Nuclear Services

Antti Ketolainen

Senior Manager
Decommissioning and Waste
Tel: +358 40 751 8956
Antti [dot] V [dot] Ketolainen [at] fortum [dot] com