NURES® Technology for Radionuclide Removal

NURES® treats radioactive liquids to a higher purity and to a smaller waste volume than any competing organic or inorganic ion exchanger in the market.

Cost Savings

Significantly reduced interim and final storage volumes for radioactive waste

Robust and Effective

High purification levels with many different liquid characteristics


A tailored solution for your needs

What is NURES®?

NURES® purifies your radioactive liquids

NURES® technology purifies your radioactive liquids efficiently with lower costs. It is based on patented, 100% inorganic, highly selective ion exchange ("IX") materials CsTreat, SrTreat, CoTreat, and SbTreat. The Treat IX materials have been developed from a user perspective and proven in the most challenging conditions, including the water treatment at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant where extremely stringent purification criteria has been applied. The Treat IX materials have also shown their superior performance in independent tests. 

NURES® key benefits

  • Provides considerable cost savings in reduced interim and final storage volumes 

  • Provides the best purification level due to combination of high selectivity and capacity 

  • Is simple to implement and use

  • Leaves only inorganic waste

  • Robust for different liquid characteristics 

Customized solutions for your needs

You can easily tailor a solution for efficient nuclide removal. It can be either our: 

  • highly selective ion exchange material for your existing system

  • a concept design, or 

  • a complete treatment system with high degree of customization

The NURES® IX materials efficiently remove nuclides such as cesium, strontium, cobalt, as well as other corrosion products or plutonium and other transuraniums from liquids.. Applications include the treatment of evaporator concentrates, groundwater, floor drain liquids, laboratory wastes, decommissioning liquids, and spent fuel reprocessing liquids. Even high salt concentration does not pose a problem. 


Fukushima cesium and strontium removal with NURES®

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Treating with NURES®

Download here

Download all NURES® Publications

NURES® Publications

Download here

Liquid treatment from fuel element debris

Bradwell Magnox NPP, United Kingdom

Read more

NURES® Product team

NURES® has been used around the world - See a list of selected references

JAERI, Japan (1997 – 1998)

70 m3 of reprocessing liquid with 7 GBq/l of Sr and 7 GBq/l of Cs purified to lower activity enabling cheaper further treatment.

Fukushima, Japan (2011 – 2012)

Cleaning of spent fuel pools.

Fukushima, Japan (2012 – present)

Cleaning of cooling water reverse osmosis reject. CsTreat® and SrTreat® are used in ALPS to reach a non-detectable level of Cs and Sr.

Paks NPP, Hungary (2003 – present)

Cs removal and boron recovery from evaporator concentrates.

Sellafield THORP, UK (2005 – 2007)

THORP Feed Pond decontamination with CoTreat®.

Dounreay, UK (2002 – present)

Cleaning of sodium coolant from PFR and DFR with CsTreat®.

Bradwell Magnox NPP, UK (2013– 2017)

Treatment of liquid from a Fuel Element Debris (FED) treatment system with CsTreat® and CoTreat®.

Callaway, USA (1996 – 1999)

3000 m3 of floor drain wastewater was purified with 250 litres of CsTreat®.

Savannah River, USA (1999 – 2000)

Demonstration to remove cesium from R-Reactor Disassembly Basin. 24 000 m3 was treated.

Loviisa, Finland (1991 – present)

1310 m3 of evaporator concentrates have been purified by 2009 with 232 litres of CsTreat®. Savings compared to cementation are over 50 million euros.

Atomflot, Russia (1996 - 1997)

Cs and Sr purification of liquids from nuclear ice breakers.

Paldiski, Estonia (1995)

Cleaning of 760 m3 of liquid waste in the Paldiski Naval Base (former Soviet Naval Training Centre) with only 12 litres of CsTreat®

NURES® Publications

The following NURES® Publications are free to download, but we would like to better serve you by getting the contact information of those interested in our products. Please fill the following form and you will be redirected to our downloads page. 

Available publications:

  • Tusa, Esko - Efficiency Of Fortum's CsTreat® And SrTreat® In Cesium And Strontium Removal In Fukushima Daiichi NPP, ENC2014, European Nuclear Conference, 11-14 May 2014, Marseille, France
  • Tusa, Esko - Harjula, Risto - Yarnell, Peter (2007) Fifteen Years of Operation with Inorganic Highly Selective Ion Exchange Materials. WM'07 Conference, February 25 - March 1, 2007, Tucson, AZ.
  • Tajiri, H - Mimori, K - Miyajima, K. - Uchikoshi, T. - Mizubayashi, H. Tusa, E. (2000) Experience of Test Operation for Removal of Fission Product Nuclides in TRU-Liquid Waste and Concentrated Nitric Acid Using Inorganic Ion Exchangers. WM'00 Conferenc
  • Harjula, Risto - Paajanen, Airi - Lehto, Jukka - Tusa, Esko and Standring, Paul (2003) Testing of CoTreat Inorganic Ion Exchange Media for the Removal of Co-60 from Thorp Pond Water. WM'03 Conference, February 23-27, 2003, Tuscon, AZ.
  • Lehto, Jukka - Brodkin, Leena - Harjula, Risto and Tusa, Esko (1999) Separation of Radioactive Strontium from Alkaline Nuclear Waste Solutions with the Highly Effective Ion Ex-changer SrTreat, Nuclear Technology, vol. 127 July 1999, pp. 81-87. 
Contact details
The data collected in this form is used to respond to your feedback or inquiry. The data will be stored for approximately one year and may be used in analysing what kind of feedback we receive. Read more about the Data Privacy at Fortum here.

Data for the ion exchange materials: CsTreat, SrTreat, CoTreat and SbTreat

  CsTreat®​ CoTreat® SrTreat® SbTreat®
Removes Cesium (Cs-134, Cs-137) Radioactive Cobalt​​ Strontium Antimony (Sb-122, Sb-124, and Sb-125)
Can also be used for   corrosion products (e.g. Mn-54, Fe-59, Ni-63, Zn-65), transuraniums            (e.g. Pu-236)​ Pu, Zn Tc-99 (pertechnetate)
Not disturbing conditions High salt concentrations High salt concentrations High salt concentrations High salt concentrations
Most disturbing factors Potassium pH, colloids, Calcium Calcium, Magnesium Phosphate
Based on Ferrocyanide Titanium Oxide Titanium Oxide Zirconium Oxide
Inorganic Yes Yes Yes Yes
Stable Yes Yes Yes Yes
Format Solid granules Solid granules Solid granules Solid granules
Bulk density, kg/l 0.67 1 0.88 0.67
Grain size typically, mm 0.25 - 0.85 0.30 - 0.85 0.30 - 0.85 0.25 - 0.85
other size options, mm < 0.15 mm or 0.15 - 0.25 mm < 0.15 mm or 0.15 - 0.25 mm < 0.15 mm or 0.15 - 0.25 mm < 0.15 mm or 0.15 - 0.25 mm
Decontamination factor typically 1000-10000, highest achieved 8,000,000 10 - 2000 200-2000, highest achieved 165,000,000 20 - 1000
Capacity, BV and l/kg Depends on liquid composition, can be calculated from chemical parameters
Operating pH area 1-13 4-8 (optimal 5-7) ​>7 (optimal >10) 1-13 (optimal <8)
Max. operating temperature, °C 80 300 300 200
Suitable for both column or bed operations Yes Yes Yes Yes
Service flow rate typically, BV/h​ 10-20 10-20 10-20 10-20