Newbuild Loviisa 3 (2007-2010)

Loviisa nuclear power plant consists of Loviisa 1&2 VVER-440 nuclear reactors commissioned in 1977 and 1980. In 2007, Fortum started a project with the purpose of building a new power plant unit on the same site as the existing units. The project was carried forward in accordance with the Finnish licensing process and at the same time its technical and commercial feasibility was investigated in various ways. 

In the end, Fortum did not get a Decision in Principle from the Finnish Government for a nuclear newbuild project but nevertheless the experience gained in the project could be utilized to support TVO and Fennovoima in their newbuild projects and later in Fortum’s new two-year newbuild feasibility study that was started at the end of 2022.

Nuclear power
  • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
  • Decision-in-Principle (DIP) application and related reference material
  • Feasibility studies of the plant concepts
  • Development of bid specification material including technical requirements
  • Development of front-end engineering agreement including scope and deliverables
  • Preparation of purchasing and implementation model
  • Cooling water studies and planning
  • Combined Heat and Power (CHP) option: main technical alternatives for the district heat transportation were evaluated and realistic cost estimate were done

Case description

The project proceeded according to the Finnish licensing process and the works for Loviisa 3 were started in March 2007 with the development of the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) program and the EIA report which was drawn up on the basis of the statements made on the program. The preparatory phase for Loviisa 3 was continued with compilation of the Decision in Principle (DIP) application, which was started in the beginning of 2008. In conjunction of handling of the Loviisa 3 Decision in Principle -application, multiple reactor type candidates were assessed by the nuclear safety authority of Finland (STUK).

Along with these licensing process specific steps, the technical readiness of the Loviisa 3 plant alternatives were promoted e.g. through feasibility studies including identification of most critical licensing topics and site related issues. The Loviisa 3 bid specification materials, such as technical requirements, were developed and thorough preparations for the prequalification and for the plant specific front-end engineering projects, that were planned to be started at the end of 2010, were carried out. The studies performed by Fortum on the reactor designs included: 

  • Extensive feasibility studies on licensability and technical readiness
  • Discussions with the vendor candidates on need of possible design modifications 
  • Applicant's safety assessment on plant design alternatives for the DIP application 
  • Studies of siting the plant at Loviisa NPP site 
  • Assessment of different implementation model alternatives
  • General and technical requirements and other relevant parts for Loviisa 3 bid invitation specification

The possibility for large-scale combined heat and power (CHP) generation (1000 MWth) for district heating purposes in Helsinki Metropolitan area was investigated as an option in Loviisa 3 newbuild project.  As the CHP option required the heat to be transported over a distance of about 100 km to its consumers, the main focus in the work was targeted to the technical and economical evaluation of different alternatives for the heat transportation from Loviisa to Helsinki. All alternatives were technically brought to the level that sufficiently reliable cost estimates between different alternatives were comparable with each other.

The evaluations on technical feasibility of a large scale CHP turbine were conducted on a conceptual level. More in depth feasibility study with a turbine vendor was originally planned to be launched in the beginning of 2010. This however was eventually postponed to be an essential part of the design projects planned to be started in late 2010. The conceptual studies and discussions with the turbine vendors gave encouraging results but in a possible future project a more in depth study would be needed in the beginning.

Project achievements and development targets

Although Loviisa 3 did not get positive Decision in Principle in 2010, the work done was not in vain, but the knowledge and experience acquired could be further used in latter TVO’s Olkiluoto 4 and in Fennovoima’s Hanhikivi 1 newbuild projects in which Fortum had significant supporting and service provider roles. Currently, the results of the work are being utilized in Fortum’s new two-year newbuild feasibility study that was started at the end of 2022.

Jani Ikonen

Newbuild and Operating Services
Tel: +358 40 357 2467
jani [dot] ikonen [at] fortum [dot] com

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