Carbon2x background

Carbon2x – Recycled materials from CO2

Every year, Europeans generate nearly 100 million tonnes of unrecycled waste that is turned into energy. Fortum’s objective is to reuse, recycle and utilise as much of this waste stream as possible. Incineration is an important part of the current waste management system, but it needs improvement.

We at Fortum believe that all carbon belongs in circulation. This means that emissions, such as CO2 from waste incineration, are also turned into new raw materials​. To do this at scale, we need to rethink CO2 in recycling.

Our solution is Carbon2x

The aim of the Carbon2x programme is to capture of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere during waste incineration and turn it into sustainable products. At the same time, the Carbon2x programme has the potential to help improve the recycling rate of plastic packaging significantly. By adopting the concept at a large scale, the recycling rate of plastic packaging in Finland can be doubled compared to the current level by 2030.

Key benefits of Carbon2x

Circular economy

Carbon2x increases the circulation of materials by complementing mechanical recycling.

Energy production
Sustainable feedstock

Carbon2x turns waste into valuable feedstock for new products​, such as high-quality plastic that could be used for food and pharmaceutical packaging.

Climate and resources
Climate action

Carbon2x enables a lower carbon footprint by capturing and recycling carbon (CCU) from waste incineration. It can help decarbonise hundreds of waste-to-energy plants in Europe alone.

Recycled materials
Closing the loop

The Carbon2x solution closes the loop of CO2 circulation, allowing the captured emissions return to circulation as recycled raw materials.

Watch how Carbon2x returns CO2 into circulation

This is how CO2 becomes a valuable raw material

Carbon capture and utilisation

Carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) is the key to not only cutting emissions, but also to keep them in circulation. With Carbon2x, waste can be used as energy and recycled on a molecular level – without emissions.

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Phases of the Carbon2x pilot 

The first phase of Carbon2x

The pilot was launched in 2022 at Fortum’s waste incineration plant in Riihimäki, Finland. In the first phase, the captured CO2 was combined with hydrogen to produce methane. 

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The second phase of Carbon2x

In 2023, Fortum announced that the Carbon2x pilot was ready to move on to its second phase, in which the aim is to produce CO2-based plastics.

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Contact us

Tony Rehn

Program Director
Tel: +358404855857
tony [dot] rehn [at] fortum [dot] com