Radioactive Waste Disposal

Safe and responsible final disposal of nuclear waste is the last but pivotal link in comprehensive radioactive waste management chain and a precondition for sustainable nuclear electricity production. Fortum offers design and consulting services for other waste management organizations for planning, licensing and operating of final disposal repositories. As both nuclear power plant and final disposal facility licensee and operator, we have unique experience in developing safe and cost-efficient disposal solutions for different radioactive waste types. We support customers to find solutions for final disposal of low-and-intermediate level waste (operational waste, decommissioning waste and radioactive waste from industry) and high-level waste (spent nuclear fuel). We have expertise from different types of final disposal solutions such as near-surface disposal facilities and deep geological repositories. Fortum has decades of experience on compilation of safety cases and other analyses which demonstrate the post-closure safety of the final disposal.


Responsible final disposal of nuclear waste – final disposal begins in Finland, the first in the world

Extensive service offering for sustainable final disposal of radioactive waste

Fortum offers a comprehensive services for waste management organizations who are responsible  for final disposal of low-and-intermediate level waste (LILW) and high level waste (HLW, spent nuclear fuel). We have expertise and provide consulting for different type of repositories such as the near-surface disposal facilities, mined repositories, and deep geological repositories. Being simultaneously a waste producer and the final disposal facility operator, we understand deeply the requirements for the safe and cost-efficient solutions.

We can support our customers during the whole lifecycle of final disposal project. Our expertise covers pre-studies, site selection, licencing, engineering, construction, commissioning and operation of final disposal repositories. For the organizations who are in the very beginning of the planning of final disposal, we offer strategical consultation for waste management. In addition, we support in compilation of holistic technical feasibility studies and cost analysis covering the total cost of ownership. 

When it comes to site selection, we offer support for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) preparation, alongside assistance in site selection and characterization to ensure optimal location for the final disposal facilities. In licensing phase we can support with the preparation of construction and operating license documentation. We prepare safety cases including long-term safety analysis, offer radiation safety expertise and produce Preliminary Safety Analysis Reports (PSAR) and Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSAR). Our offering covers also determination and management of Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). 

In design phase our aim is to provide conceptual level multi-disciplinary engineering for final disposal facilities. We provide owner’s engineering support throughout the design phase and specialize in radiation and nuclear safety engineering. During the construction phase, we deliver owner’s engineering and construction monitoring services to ensure that all processes adhere to the highest standards. Once the construction is complete, we support with commissioning and planning of the operational phase. This includes for example the development of operating and maintenance manuals and instructions and maintenance expert services. Additionally, we have valuable operating experience in implementing plant modifications for waste facilities and can support to enhance the efficient operation of the facilities.

Our offering:

  • Pre-studies
    • Strategical consultation fot waste managament
    • Holistic technical feasibility studies
    • Cost analysis covering the total cost of ownership
  • Site selection
    • Support for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) preparation
    • Support for site selection and characterization
  • Licensing and justification
    • Preparation of construction and operating license documentation
    • Safety cases - Long term safety analysis
    • Radiation safety expertise
    • PSAR & FSAR reports
    • Determination of WAC
  • Engineering services
    • Conceptual level multi-disciplinary engineering for final disposal facilities
    • Owner’s engineering support for engineering
    • Radiation and nuclear safety engineering
  • Support for construction phase
    • Owner’s engineering, construction monitoring
  • Commissioning and operational support
    • Development of operating and maintenance manuals and instructions
    • Maintenance expert services
    • Waste Management as a Service


REMAINT nuclear outage concept
Near-surface disposal repositories

One option for the disposal of very-low and low level solid radioactive waste is to store the waste in near surface disposal facilities.  Fortum has long experience on waste with a very low level of radioactivity in its own near surface disposal facility at Kumla Sweden. Additionally, Fortum has participated in different near surface disposal projects and executed safety cases and analyses e.g. for radioactive waste landfill sites in Finland.

Final disposal
Low-and-intermediate level waste (LILW) repositories

We provide safety cases and other expert services for the final disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW). By operating and developing our own repositories for low-and-intermediate level waste at Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant, Fortum has gained decades of practical experience about safe, efficient and cost-effective disposal solutions for low-and-intermediate level waste. We want to help our customers to  ensure the safe and economical disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste. 

Nuclear waste management
Deep geological repositories (DGRs)

Fortum has strong capabilities to offer engineering and project implementation services for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. We are one of the two owners of the Finnish Posiva, the spent nuclear fuel disposal company that will start the operation of the deep geological repository in mid-2020s, as the first organization in the world. Over the years, Fortum as an owner has overseen Posiva’s project from early on, all the way through the siting, design and constructions phases to the current point, where commissioning and operation are being planned and pilots for closure and post-closure are ongoing. Fortum has also been actively involved in the final disposal project by providing technical support to Posiva in several areas of expertise. In topics related to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel we co-operate with our partner Posiva Solutions Oy.

Antti Ketolainen

Decommissioning and Waste
Tel: +358 40 751 8956
Antti [dot] V [dot] Ketolainen [at] fortum [dot] com

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